The interdependence of society and nature, the inherent complexity of social–ecological systems, and the global deterioration of ecosystem services provide the rationale for a growing body of literature focusing on social–ecological resilience – the capacity to cope with, adapt to and shape change – for sustainable development. Processes of learning-by-doing and multiple-loop social learning across knowledge systems and different levels of decision-making are envisioned to strengthen this capacity, combined in the concept of adaptive governance. This study explores how learning for resilience is stimulated in practice; investigating learning opportunities provided in UNESCO-designated biosphere reserves.
Research Professor on society, culture, art, cognition, critical thinking, intelligence, creativity, neuroscience, autopoiesis, self-organization, complexity, systems, networks, rhizomes, leadership, sustainability, thinkers, futures ++
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