Much social organization no longer fits a group-centric model of society. Work, community and domesticity have moved from hierarchically arranged, densely knit, bounded groups to social networks. In networked societies: boundaries are more permeable, interactions are with diverse others, linkages switch between multiple networks, and hierarchies are flatter and more recursive. People maneuver through multiple communities, no longer bounded by locality. Organizations form complex networks of alliances and exchanges, often in transient virtual or networked organizations. Workers –especially professionals, technical workers, and managers — report to multiple peers and superiors. Work relations spill over their nominal work group’s boundaries, and may even connect them to outside organizations. In virtual and networked organizations, management by network has people reporting to shifting sets of supervisors, peers, and even nominal subordinates.
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